The critical issue is not where organised criminal markets are the strongest,
but where the response from the state is the weakest or most compromised.
The volume of heroin shipped along a network of maritime routes
in East and Southern Africa has increased considerably.
East Africa’s sea and land borders have increasingly
turned into corridors for the trafficking of heroin.
This report examines the characteristics of the heroin trade off the East African coast
and highlights the criminal governance systems that facilitate drug trafficking
along these routes.