Tools for measuring the scope and scale of organised crime in Africa are limited. Current assessments are largely done at the national level, often appraising criminal threats in ways that don’t meet the needs of policymakers, who are increasingly seeking integrated responses to the challenge.
A better evidence basis is urgently required for states and key actors to effectively monitor, analyse, prioritise and address the threat presented by organised crime in a systematic and sustainable way.
Organised Crime Index for Africa
The ENACT Organised Crime Index provides a multidimensional measure of organised crime and its impact, allowing key actors to develop effective strategies.
Launched on 24 September 2019 on the margins of the United Nations General Assembly in New York, the Organised Crime Index is informed by a baseline assessment that identifies the availability, quality and relevance of continental data, as well as priority data gaps.
The index is an interactive platform on the ENACT website. It is complemented by a flagship biennial report, which will be used to sensitise policymakers.
Organised Crime Index for Africa – Model
Based on open-source research and analysis, and supplemented and nuanced by expert assessment, the Organised Crime Index scores for each country in Africa reflect two dimensions:
For each country, scores for each of the index’s constituent indicators have been assigned on a scale of 1-10 and justified based on the data collected and expert knowledge.
Scores for the 10 criminal markets included in the index are based on an assessment of the value, prevalence and non-monetary impacts of the market. Prevalence is defined as the degree of pervasiveness of any activity related to the criminal market, from production to transport and use.
Criminal market scores consider a number of different factors, including the volume of the illicit commodity being trafficked; the number and nature of individuals involved, both the victims and perpetrators; the location of illicit flows and the geographic concentration of the illicit market; the extent to which the market breeds violence; the renewability or scarcity of a commodity; and the monetary value of the market.
Scores for the four criminal actor types included in the index are based on an assessment of the potency and pervasiveness of these actor types. The assessment considers a number of factors, including the longevity of criminal groups, their organisational capacity, territorial control, levels of violence employed, diversity of criminal markets employed in, degree of influence within the state apparatus, degree of impunity enjoyed, capacity for laundering illicit proceeds, and more.
The second component of the Organised Crime Index is resilience, which captures a country’s resilience to organised crime. The 12 building blocks of resilience look at the types of mechanisms that countries have in place to combat organised crime, and the effectiveness of these measures.
Resilience capacity and effectiveness are evaluated to assess the level at which states have established appropriate legal, political and strategic frameworks to address organised crime. The 12 indicators can broadly be categorised as: leadership and governance; criminal justice and security; economic and financial; and civil society and protection.